Indirect aggression

is defined as

social manipulation, attacking the target in cicuitous ways.

Shuts the other one out of the group.

Becomes friends with another as a kind of revenge.

Ignores the other one.

Gossips about the one he/she is angry with.

Tells bad or false stories about the other one.

Plans secretly to bother the other one.

Says bad things behind the other one’s back.

Says to others "Let’s not be with him/her!".

Tells the other one’s secrets to a third person.

Writes small notes where the other one is criticized.

Criticizes the other one’s hair or clothing.

Tries to get others to dislike the person he/she is angry with.

Indirect aggression (12 items, a part of the "Direct & Indirect Aggression Scales, (DIAS)" © K. Björkqvist, K.M.J. Lagerspetz, & K. Österman, Åbo Akademi University, Finland (1992).

Articles on in direct aggression:

Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression.

Cross-cultural evidence for female indirect aggression.

Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research.

Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children.

The development of direct and indirect aggressive strategies in males and females.

Indirect aggression in boys and girls.

New trends in the study of female aggression.


click here for exact references of the articles and for a description of "A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Gender Differences in Regard to Indirect and Direct Aggression During Adolescence"

click here for DIAS, the scale for measuring indirect aggression